# A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity

In this activity, students will measure the mass of a book and then calculate the velocity at which it slides across a horizontal surface. They will use Newton’s second law to determine that the force exerted on the book is proportional to its mass times its acceleration.

The the force required to start an object sliding is the amount of force needed to start an object moving. This can be calculated using a formula that takes into account the mass of the object, its acceleration due to gravity, and the surface area on which it’s moving.

This Video Should Help:

The force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is larger, according to this diagram.

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: The force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is larger

According to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, the force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is directly proportional to the object’s mass. In other words, the heavier the object, the more force is required to get it moving. This explains why the force required to start a book sliding is greater than the force required to start a rubber block weighing only 60 newtons.

Now let’s take a look at four different objects being pushed across a frictionless surface by four different constant forces. The first diagram shows a child pushing a wagon at a constant velocity. Notice that even though the child is exerting a large amount of force on the wagon, she is not able to move it very fast because of its mass. The second diagram shows a rubber block being pushed by a much smaller force. Even though this object has less mass than the wagon, it can be moved much faster because there is less resistance (friction) opposing its motion.

The third and fourth diagrams show two objects with different masses but similar dimensions being pushed by identical forces. Even though these objects have different masses, they will reach the same speed because they are experiencing the same amount of acceleration (the change in velocity over time). So, if you want to know how fast an object will move when you push it with a given force, you need to consider both its mass and the amount of friction opposing its motion.

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: A child pulls a wagon at a constant velocity

The force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is larger when the object is more massive. The diagram below shows four different constant forces being exerted on a 2.0 kg object. The leftmost column represents the magnitude of the force, and the rightmost column indicates the direction in which the force is acting.

As you can see, the heavier object requires more force to move at a constant velocity than the lighter object. This makes sense intuitively, as it takes more effort to move a heavy object than a light one.

Now let’s consider a rubber block weighing 60 newtons. The diagram below shows this block being pushed by two different forces:

In this case, we can see that the force required to push the block at a constant velocity is greater when the pushing force is applied over a smaller area. This also makes sense intuitively, as it is harder to push something when you are trying to push it over a small area.

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: A rubber block weighing 60 newtons

When a book is sliding at a constant velocity, the force required to start it sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is larger. This is due to friction; the more force that is required to overcome the frictional force, the greater the initial force required.

Four different constant forces are exerted on a 2.0 kg object:

The four different constant forces are gravity, air resistance, friction, and tension. Each of these forces affects the motion of an object in different ways. Gravity pulls objects towards each other, while air resistance opposes gravity and slows objects down. Friction creates a resistive force that opposes motion, while tension pulls objects together.

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: The force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is larger than the force required to keep it sliding

Each of the following diagrams shows a different block being pushed. The blue arrows represent the force applied to the block by the child. The red arrows represent the forces exerted on the block by gravity and friction.

A child pulls a wagon at a constant velocity:

The force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is larger than the force required to keep it sliding:

Four different constant forces are exerted on a 2.0 kg object:

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: Four different constant forces are exerted on a 2.0 kg object

1. The force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is larger than the force required to keep it sliding. This is because friction must be overcome in order to get the object moving, but once it is moving, friction acts to slow it down.

2. A child pulls a wagon at a constant velocity. The pulling force exerted by the child equals the frictional force opposing the motion of the wagon.

3. A rubber block weighing 60 newtons slides down a frictionless inclined plane at a constant velocity. The gravitational force acting on the block is balanced by the component of the normal force that opposes gravity.

4 . Four different constant forces are exerted on a 2 kg object: two horizontal forces and two vertical forces. If these four forces are represented by vectors, then their vector sum must be zero in order for the object to move at a constant velocity.

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: The force required to keep an object sliding is less than the force required to start it sliding

This is because when an object is already in motion, there is less friction acting on it than when the object is at rest. In order to start an object sliding, you must overcome the static friction between the object and the surface it is resting on. Once the object is moving, there is only kinetic friction opposing its motion. This frictional force decreases as the speed of the object increases.

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: The force required to start an object sliding across a uniform horizontal surface is independent of the object’s mass

As you can see from the diagram, each of the different blocks being pushed has a different force required to start it sliding. However, the mass of the object does not seem to affect the amount of force required. This is because the force required to start an object sliding is independent of its mass.

So, for example, if you have a rubber block weighing 60 newtons and a child pulls a wagon at a constant velocity, the force required to start the object sliding would be the same as if there were four different constant forces exerted on a 2.0 kg object.

## A Book Weighing 20 Newtons Slides At A Constant Velocity: The force required to keep an object sliding is independent of the object’s mass

We all know that a book has mass. This is the property of an object which gives it weight. The heavier the book, the more force required to keep it moving at a constant velocity.

But what if we take two books, one weighing 20 newtons and the other 60 newtons, and slide them across a uniform horizontal surface? The force required to start each of them sliding is different, but once they’re both moving at a constant velocity, the force required to keep each of them moving is exactly the same!

Why is this? Well, it has to do with something called friction. When an object is sliding across a surface, there’s always some friction between the object and the surface. This friction resists the motion of the object and tries to slow it down.

The larger the mass of an object, the greater its momentum (which is just mass multiplied by velocity). And since momentum is conserved (that means it doesn’t change), when an object loses some of its momentum due to friction, that lost momentum must be equal to the gain in momentum experienced by whatever surfaces are providing the frictional force.

In other words:

Friction = -(change in momentum) / (time)

or

Friction = -(mass * velocity) / (time)

The “the diagram below represents a 10 newton block sliding” is an object that slides at a constant velocity. The diagram below shows the relationship between the force, mass, and acceleration of a 10 newton block.

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